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HCFC Help Centre

This section provides information about the management and phase out of HCFCs.

Contents

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About this web site: see information note on UNEP web site and Swedish EPA web site


Introduction

HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons) are widely used in the HCFC-22 moleculerefrigeration, foam, solvent, aerosol and fire fighting sectors as a transitional substance to substitute CFCs. HCFCs are also used as feedstock (raw material) in the production for other chemical products.

HCFCs were introduced in the 1990s as alternative chemicals for CFCs and added to the list of substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol. It was acknowledged at the time that these chemicals, with considerably lower ozone depleting potentials (ODP), were transitional and their production and consumption was also to be phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Although having considerably lower ozone depleting potentials than CFCs, many HCFCs have high global warming potentials, of up to 2000 times that of carbon dioxide.

In 2006 global HCFC production was 34,400 ODP tonnes and approximately 75% of global HCFC use is in air-conditioning and refrigeration sectors. The main HCFC used is HCFC-22 or chlorodifluoromethane.

At the 20th anniversary meeting of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone layer agreement was reached to adjust the Montreal Protocol's HCFC phase out schedule to accelerate the phase-out of production and consumption of HCFCS. This decision will result in a significant reduction in ozone depletion and well as in global warming.

The schedule for Article 5 (developing) country phase-out for production and consumption of HCFCs is:

Schedule
Year
Baseline Average of 2009 and 2010
Freeze 2013
10% reduction (90% of baseline) 2015
35% reduction (65% of baseline) 2020
67.5%(reduction (32.5% of baseline) 2025
Total phase-out 2030
2.5 % of baseline averaged over 10 years (2030-2040) allowed, if necessary, for servicing of refrigeration & air-conditioning equipment until 2040 2030 - 2040

The schedule for non-Article 5 (developed) country phase-out for production and consumption of HCFCs is:

Level
Year
Baseline 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8% of 1989 consumption
Freeze 1996
35% reduction (65% of baseline) 2004
75% reduction(25% of baseline) 2010
90% reduction(10% of baseline) 2015
Total phase-out 2020
0.5% of baseline restricted to servicing of refrigeration & air-conditioning equipment until 2030 2020 - 2030

Science

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The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate
The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting Climate External link
Article by Guus J.M. Velders, Stephen O. Andersen, John S. Daniel, David W. Fahey, Mack McFarland in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, January 2007.
Source: National Academy of Science

Technology
GTZ-Proklima: Guidelines for the safe use of hydrocarbon refrigerants - A handbook for engineers, technicians, trainers and policy-makers - For a climate-friendly cooling

published by GTZ Proklima and TUEV-Sued

This handbook is a guidebook for policy-makers involved with designing nationwide policies to support the use of natural refrigerants and for manufacturers and installers of HCFC and HFC equipment to reliably assess the suitability of hydrocarbon options and subsequently implement them. GTZ-Proklima teamed up with TUEV Sued to ensure that the safety system is described from both angles, from a third party perspective and from an Implementing Agency.

This publication will be shortly available, please re-check the website again..

Source: GTZ Proklima
 

GTZ-Proklima: Good Practices in Refrigeration

Second editon, jointly published by GTZ-Proklima, SENAI and MMA Brazil. This manual provides professional guidance on how to service and maintain refrigeration systems operating with new technology, e.g. ozone-friendly alternative refrigerants to CFCs and HCFCs.

Part 1 addresses tools and equipment for tubing, refrigerant handling and containment.

Part 2 focuses on handling of servicing and maintaining refrigeration systems.
click here.

Source: GTZ Proklima
Ozone protection, Climate change, Energy efficiency: Montreal - Kyoto
Ozone protection, Climate change, Energy efficiency: Montreal - Kyoto
The second in a series of special international issues of the magazine "Industria & Formazione" featuring articles on the interlinkages between ozone protection, climate change and energy efficiency written by internationally-renown experts in industry, government, and research institutes. This magazine was produced by the Centro Studi Galileo in cooperation with UNEP's OzonAction Programme, the International Institute of Refrigeration, and the Associazione dei Tecnici del Freddo, under the auspices of the Italian Ministry of the Environment. The magazine was released at the 20th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (Doha, Qatar, 16-20 November 2008). This publication focuses on alternatives to HCFCs, including both natural and fluorinated refrigerants. For a full list of the articles, click here.
Source: Centro Studi Galileo, UNEP OzonAction, IIR

Natural Foam Blowing Agents

Sustainable Ozone- and Climate-friendly Alternatives to HCFCs

A compilation of articles on ozone-and climate-friendly HCFC alternatives in the foam sector.

This volume is a collection of articles by experts from academia and governmental institutions, along with representatives from manufacturers, suppliers and end-users of HCFCs in the foam sector. It attempts to provide guidance to those involved in implementing the HCFC phase-out under the Montreal Protocol and all other kinds of climate protection projects in developing countries: policy stakeholders as well as manufacturers and end-users of HCFCs in the foam sector from both developed and developing countries.

Various issues relevant to the introduction of natural blowing agents are covered: legislative and policy-related aspects, general properties, assets and drawbacks of natural blowing agents; different applications in the manufacturing of foams; innovative technology solutions, and case studies from Art-5 countries on how the technology conversion towards natural substances has successfully been implemented.

http://www.gtz.de/de/dokumente/gtz2009-en-proklima-nat-blow-agents.pdf

Source: GTZ Proklima
 
Avoiding a Double Phase-out: Alternative Technologies to HCFCs in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Natural Refrigerants - Sustainable Ozone- and Climate-Friendly Alternatives to HCFCs External link
This collection of articles highlights the benefits of natural refrigerants and provides guidance to those involved in implementing the HCFC phase-out in developing countries: policy stakeholders, manufacturers of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment, and end-users of R22 such as supermarket chains or owners of large (commercial) buildings with installed air-conditioning systems. It contains 31 articles covering the following themes: policies and legislation on F-gases and related issues; safety concerns and ways of overcoming them; a technical assessment of natural refrigerants in different applications (air conditioning, commercial and industrial refrigeration and heat pumps); and case studies by manufacturers and end-users providing insights into market developments and examples of successful conversions of systems previously using R22 to natural refrigerants.
Source: GTZ Proklima
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IPCC TEAP Special Report
TEAP Supplemental Report to the IPCC/TEAP Special Report: Safeguarding the ozone layer and the global climate system: issues related to hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons External link

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TEAP - Report of the Task Force on HCFC Issues (with particular focus on the impact of the Clean Development Mechanism) and Emissions Reduction Benefits Arising from Earlier HCFC Phase-Out and Other Practical Measures - Response to Decision XVIII/12 External link
 
Report of the Ozone Secretariat Workshop on the IPCC/TEAP Special Report - September 2006 External link
 
Summary report of discussion at the dialogue on key future challenges facing the Montreal Protocol External link
 
HCFC Task Force Report May 2003 External link
 

TEAP April 1997 Report, Vol I, Part III... Possible Applications of HCFCs... External link
See pp 170- 175.

 
Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee reportsExternal link
 
Source: UNEP Ozone Secretariat, TEAP, IPCC
Avoiding a Double Phase-out: Alternative Technologies to HCFCs in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Avoiding a Double Phase-out: Alternative Technologies to HCFCs in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
A case study booklet developed by the OzonAction Programme in 1999 that informs developing countries about how companies and organisations in other countries have successfully identified, evaluated and adopted refrigerants that do not rely on HCFCs. Each case study includes background about the company, a description of the alternative technology, observations about the applicability to developing countries, and contacts for more information.
Source: UNEP DTIE's OzonAction Programme
Ammonia 21 web site
ammonia21.com External link
ammonia21.com is a commercial web site that aims to foster the worldwide use of ammonia (NH3, also known as R-717) in industrial and commercial refrigeration, chilling, and other applications. It includes details about commercially-available NH3-based technology, provides an interactive tool to connect with the global ammonia community, and information about the latest progress regarding the use of ammonia as a natural refrigerant.
Source: ammonia21.com
Hydrocarbon 21 web site
hydrocarbons21.com External link
hydrocarbons21.com is a commercial web site that aims to support the worldwide use of hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants in cooling, refrigeration, and heating. It includes details about commercially-available HC technology, provides an interactive tool to connect with the global HC community, and information about the latest developments regarding the use of hydrocarbons as natural refrigerants, including propane, isobutane, propylene and others. Some of the HC technologies featured on this site are replacements for HCFCs.
Source: hydrocarbons21.com
Hydrocarbon 21 web site
R744.com External link
R744.com is a commercial web site that covers "Everything R744" in mobile air conditioning (MAC), refrigeration, heat pumps, and other applications. The website includes: news affecting the use of R744 worldwide; Components, systems and engineering services for R744 mobile and stationary heating, cooling, and refrigeration systems; Policies andlegislation worldwide; Upcoming conferences andevents;
Papers database; Frequently Asked Questions about CO2 in different applications; Forums to share best practice and exchange ideas about the use of R744; Jobs platform to connect employers and qualified staff active in R744 technology.
Source: R744.com

Financing

Hydrocarbon 21 web site
Japan's Cool Earth Partnership External link
The Government of Japan established this financial mechanism to assist developing countries to address climate change. Starting in 2008 and lasting for 5 years, Japan will provide funds amounting to approximately US$ 10 billion (JPYen 1,250 billion) for assistance to developing countries that are making efforts to reduce GHGs emissions and achieve economic growth in a compatible way, on the basis of policy consultations between Japan and those countries. Japan will provide assistance in two major categories: (1) adaptation to climate change and improved access to clean energy (up to US$ 2 billion, or JPYen 250 billion) and (2) assistance for mitigation of climate change (up to US$ 8 billion, or JPYen 1 trillion). As an example in the "Mitigation of climate change", the Fund would consider measures to mitigate effects of global warming by reducing GHGs emissions. It is possible that projects involving reduction of GHG emissions by addressing HCFCs or HFCs could be eligible.
Source: Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs
 

Policy
Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol
Decision XIX/6: Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol with regard to Annex C, Group I, substances (hydrochlorofluorocarbons) External link
From the Report of the 19th Meeting of the Parties (MOP) to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, pages 33-34 (document number UNEP/OzL.Pro.19/7)
From the Report of the 18th MOP, pages 38-39 (document number UNEP/OzL.Pro.18/10)
Source: UNEP Ozone Secretariat
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ExCom 53 60

 

Draft Guidelines for the Preparation of HCFC Phase-out Management Plans Incorporating HCFC Surveys (Decision 53/37 (H))

This document, which contains draft guidelines for the preparation of HCFC phase-out management plans (HPMPs), has been prepared by the Multilateral Fund Secretariat in cooperation with the implementing agencies in response to decision 53/37. It takes into account the comments and views of Executive Committee members. The document contains three parts: Part I addresses the timing and the general approach to adopting guidelines for the development of HPMPs. Part II covers policy issues that are related to the development of the guidelines. Part III outlines specific activities that should be undertaken with respect to data collection, preparation, consultation and finalization of draft guidelines for the preparation of HPMPs. (document number UNEP/OzL.Pro/ExCom/54/53).

See also Executive Committee decision 54/39.

Source: Multilateral Fund Secretariat
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ExCom 53 60

 

Options for assessing and defining eligible incremental costs for HCFC consumption and production phase-out activities (follow-up to Decision 52/4)External link

A discussion paper prepared by the Multilateral Fund Secretariat for the consideration of the 53rd Meeting of the Executive Committee, November 2007 (document number UNEP/OzL.Pro/ExCom/53/60).
Source: Multilateral Fund Secretariat
 
EU Policy on ODS and F-Gases in the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Sector External link
A presentation by the European Commission about the EC's HCFC regulations, delivered meeting of Europe and Central Asia Regional Network of Ozone Officers held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, 28 February 2007.
Source: European Commission

Partnerships
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Refrigerants Naturally
Refrigerants, Naturally External link
A global initiative of companies committed to combat climate change and ozone layer depletion by substituting fluorinated gases ("F-gases", such as CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs) with natural refrigerants. Refrigerants, Naturally! is supported by the United Nation Environment Programme and Greenpeace and is recognised as a "Partnership for Sustainable Development" by the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. See also the Refrigerants, Naturally partnership page on this site.
Source: Refrigerants, Naturally
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Building Owners Save Money, Save the Earth, Replace Your CFC Air Conditioning Chiller
A brochure explaining the environmental and financial reasons to replace CFC chillers with new, energy-efficient equipment. A partnership of international organisations, governments, manufacturers, NGOs and others have endorsed the brochure to eliminate uncertainty and underscore the wisdom of replacing CFC chillers.
Source: USEPA, UNEP DTIE OzonAction Programme, UNDP, World Bank

NGO perspectives and information resources
 

Greenpeace: COOL TECHNOLOGIES: WORKING WITHOUT HFCs-2010

Examples of HFC-free cooling technologies in various industrial sectors.

hGrGreenGrcfc
An Early Freeze to Stop the Warming
 
An Early Freeze to Stop the Warming External link
An Environmental Investigation Agency review of the phase-out scenarios which were under discussion at the 19th Meeting of the Parties of the Montreal Protocol and recommends how to achieve maximum benefits for the climate and the ozone layer.
Source: Environmental Investigation Agency
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HCFC Phase out
HCFC Phase-Out External link
A comparative assessment by the Environmental Investigation Agency of the proposed Adjustments which were considered at the 19th Meeting of the Parties of the Montreal Protocol.
Source: Environmental Investigation Agency
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An Unwelcome Encore - The Illegal trade in HCFCs
An Unwelcome Encore - The Illegal trade in HCFCs External link
An Environmental Investigation Agency report
Source: Environmental Investigation Agency
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Turning up the Heat
Turning up the Heat External link
An Environmental Investigation Agency report that explores linkages between ozone layer depletion and climate change: the urgent case of HCFCs and HFCs.
Source: Environmental Investigation Agency

General information and awareness
Factsheet: Status report on HCFCs
HCFC Phase out: Convenient Opportunity
to Safeguard the Ozone Layer and Climate
A Special Issue of OzonAction dedicated to HCFCs, released in advance of the 20th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (Doha, Qatar, November 2008)
Source: UNEP DTIE's OzonAction Programme

 

Factsheet: Status report on HCFCs
Factsheet: Status report on HCFCs
Part of a series of factsheets developed by the Compliance Assistance Programme (CAP) team located in UNEP's Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (ROAP) to address developing countries' priority questions related to compliance with the Montreal Protocol.
Source: UNEP DTIE's OzonAction Programme
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Strengthening the Montreal Protocol: Insurance against Abrupt Climate Change
Strengthening the Montreal Protocol: Insurance against Abrupt Climate Change External link
A 2007 paper by Kaniaru et al that assesses successes of the Montreal Protocol and considers advances in protecting the ozone layer and mitigating climate change.
Source: IISD
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USEPA web site on HCFCs
Recent International Developments in Saving the Ozone Layer External link
A USEPA web page about the environmental benefits of the new, stronger HCFC phaseout agreement. Includes: historical background, the HCFC phase out in the United States, Questions & Answers about the Proposed HCFC Allowance Allocation System, the potential climate benefits of the new HCFC controls agreed at the 19th Meeting of the Parties.
Source: USEPA

Country data
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Ozone Secretariat Article 7 data portal
Article 7 data access centre on HCFCs External link
A searchable database on HCFC consumption and production data as reported by countries to the Ozone Secretariat.
Source: UNEP Ozone Secretariat
OzonAction Trends Analysis
 
Trends analysis of HCFC consumption and production (to be available end November)
A visual analytical tool for national strategic planning showing HCFC trends in Article 5 countries.
Source: UNEP DTIE's OzonAction Programme
 
Refrigerants Data for France (2008) - 1st report of the declarations to the French Observatory of refrigerants
Source: French Observatoire des Fluides Frigorigenes

 


Surveys

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Executive Committee reports
Executive Committee discussions about HCFC surveys for Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lebanon, Mexico, Venezuela External link
Information about the HCFC surveys undertaken by UNDP (for Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lebanon, Mexico, Venezuela) and by the Government of Germany (for China). From the report of the 51st Meeting of the Executive Committee, March 2007
(document number UNEP/OzL.Pro/ExCom/51/46).
Executive Committee discussions about HCFC surveys for Malaysia, Sri Lanka and the Syrian Arab Republic External link

Information about these surveys undertaken by UNDP. From the report of the 52nd Meeting of the Executive Committee, July 2007
(document number UNEP/OzL.Pro/ExCom/52/55).

Source: Multilateral Fund Secretariat
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HCFC surveys

 

HCFC surveys in nine article 5 countries: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lebanon, Mexico, and Venezuela External link
Summary and preliminary conclusions of HCFC country surveys. Paper presented by UNDP to the 51st Meeting of the Executive Committee, March 2007 (document number UNEP/OzL.Pro/ExCom/51/Inf.2).

HCFC surveys in Article 5 countries: Sri Lanka, the Syrian Arab Republic and Addendum External link

Paper presented by UNDP to the 52nd Meeting of the Executive Committee, June 2007. (document number UNEP/OzL.Pro/ExCom/52/Inf.2 and UNEP/OzL.Pro/ExCom/52/Inf.2/Add.1)
Study on the strategy for the long term management of HCFCs in China External link

Paper presented by Germany to the 51st Meeting of the Executive Committee, March 2007 (document number UNEP/OzL.Pro/ExCom/51/Inf.3)

Source: Multilateral Fund Secretariat

HCFC management strategies
HCFC management and strategy in Hungary and Europe
HCFC management and strategy in Hungary and Europe
A presentation made at the 2007 meeting of Europe and Central Asia Regional Network of Ozone Officers.
Source: Ministry of Environment and Water, Hungary

Customs and enforcement
Trade Names of Chemicals containing Ozone Depleting Substances and their Alternatives
A worldwide database of the commercial trade names of chemical products containing ozone depleting chemicals -including HCFCs - controlled under the Montreal Protocol. This service is designed to help customs officials and National Ozone Units control imports and exports of these chemicals and prevent their illegal trade.
Source: UNEP DTIE's OzonAction Programme


Workshops and events
International Technical Meeting on HCFC phase-out (Montreal, 5-6 April 2008) External link
The accelerated phase-out schedule for HCFCs agreed on at the 19th Meeting of the Parties places increased urgency on the need to identify cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternatives. To support developing countries with this challenge the European Commission organised a technical meeting held on 5-6 April 2008 in Montreal, Canada.The meeting offered an early opportunity for preparing the implementation of Decision XIX/6 of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol by gathering and providing information on cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternatives to HCFCs in the refrigeration/air-conditioning and foam sectors. The meeting also provided information on the technical tools for implementing viable alternatives.
Source: EC DG Environment

Disclaimer
In the HCFC Help Centre, UNEP is including links to other organisations' web sites and online resources. In such cases, UNEP is providing such links for information purposes only and it does not imply or constitute an endorsement of the commercial products, services or policies of those organisations.

Countdown to Compliance for Article 5 countries
2013
-567 days or
-18 months to go
HCFC freeze
2015
163 days or
6 months to go
HCFC reduction to 90% of baseline

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