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HCFC Help Centre Alternatives to HCFCs for new equipment and applications

Introduction

This list is a quick reference to raise awareness of National Ozone Units about available alternatives to replace or avoid HCFCs, which should be considered during the preparation of their countries' HCFC Phase out Management Plans (HPMPs).

The list indicates replacements for HCFCs for specific applications, based on references in the assessment reports of the UNEP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) and its Technical Options Committees (TOCs). Only those alternatives which those reports identify as being commercially-available or being presently used by companies are included on this list. The list does not include alternatives that the TEAP/TOC reports indicate as being "future technologies" or in the research and development stage.

For many of the applications listed below, the HCFC and the non-HCFC options have co-existed for some time as replacements for CFCs. However, in light of the acceleration of the HCFC phase out resulting from Meeting of the Parties Decision XIX/6, this list places renewed attention on the non-HCFC options that are currently available.

Note:

  • This table only presents non-HCFC options for new equipment. It does not address or conversion of existing equipment (retrofits) or drop-in replacements.
  • In some cases, the alternatives indicated are for very specific applications.
  • Some of the alternatives listed may not be available in all markets.
  • The alternatives are listed in alphabetical order.
  • Alternatives in blue are fluorinated options, those in green are natural refrigerants, those with no color are not-in-kind options or other chemical alternatives.
  • Alternatives with (*) next to them are not mentioned in the TEAP reports.


Sectors where HCFCs
may be used
Specific application
Non-HCFC alternatives
Links to case studies
HCFC-22
Unitary air conditioning equipment Small self-contained air conditioners

HFCs (R-407C, R-410A, R422D*)
Hydrocarbons (R-290)

R723*, evaporation*, solar/ absorption*


Links to case studies

Small water chillers of about 100 kW refrigeration capacity up to the capacity of centrifugal chillers Screw chillers

Ammonia (R-717)
HFCs (R-134a, R-410A)

R723*

 


Links to case studies
Scroll chillers

HFCs (R-134a, R-410A, R-407C)

R744*


Links to case studies

Reciprocating chillers HFCs (R-134a, R-407C)
Hydrocarbons (R-290), Ammonia*
• Propylene (R-1270), R723*

Centrifugal chillers HFCs (R-134a)


Commercial refrigeration equipment Large supermarket systems

Ammonia (R-717)
Carbon dioxide (R-744)
HFCs (R-404A, R-407C, R-134a)
Hydrocarbons (R-290, HC-1270)

R723*


Links to case studies
Cold storage

Ammonia (R-717), R744*
HFCs (R-134a)

R723*, air cycle systems*


Links to case studies
Ice cream freezers Carbon dioxide (R-744), R600a*
HFCs (R-404A, R-134a)
Hydrocarbons (R-290)
Links to case studies
Water fountains Hydrocarbons (R-600a)


Ice making machines

HFCs (R-134a)

• R600a*

Links to case studies
Vending machines Carbon dioxide (R-744)
HFCs (R-134a)
Hydrocarbons (R-290, R-600a)
Links to case studies
Glass-door bottle coolers

Carbon dioxide (R-744)
HFCs (R-134a)
Hydrocarbons (R-290, R-600a)
Plug-in display cabinets

HFCs (R-404A)

• Hydrocarbons (isobutane)*

Links to case studies
Condensing unit systems (medium-sized commercial refrigeration) HFCs (HFC-134a, R-404A, R-507A)
Hydrocarbons, R744*
Links to case studies
Heat pumps Water-heating heat pumps Ammonia (R-717)
Carbon dioxide (R-744)
HFCs (R-134a, R-410A, R-407C, R-404A)
Hydrocarbons
Links to case studies
Industrial refrigeration Spiral, tunnel and blast freezers Ammonia (R-717)
Calcium chloride ("brine")
Carbon dioxide (R-744)
• Ethylene glycol, air cycle systems*
HFCs (R-404A)
Links to case studies
Industrial heat pumps and heat recovery Ammonia (R-717)
HFCs (R-134a, R-404A, R-407C)
Hydrocarbons
Water (R-718) and lithium bromide (absorption)
Links to case studies
Cooling of blade server computers in data centres

Carbon dioxide (R-744)

HFCs (R-134a, R-404A, R-407C) *

Links to case studies
Industrial chillers

Water (R-718), Ammonia*, carbon dioxide*, absorption*, evaporation*

HFCs (R-422a, R-422d, R-134a) *

• ice storage*

Links to case studies
Refrigerants for deep mines Ammonia (R-717)
HFCs (HFC-134a)
Water (R-718)
Refrigerated transport and mobile air conditioning (excluding passenger vehicles) Reefer ships

Ammonia (R-717)
HFCs (R-134a, R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, HFC-23)

air cycle systems*, passive refrigeration*

Refrigeration and air conditioning on merchant marine, naval and fishing
vessels
Ammonia (R-717)
Ammonia/carbon dioxide (R-717/R-744)
HFCs (R-134a, R-507, R-404A, R-407C, R-410A)
Intermodal refrigerated containers

HFCs (R-134a, R-404A)

passive refrigeration*

Refrigerated railcars Carbon dioxide (R-744)
HFCs
Road transport (trailers, diesel trucks, small trucks) Carbon dioxide (R-744)
HFCs (R-404A, R-134a, R-410A)
Hydrocarbons (R-290, R-600a)
Air conditioning in trains Air cycle systems
HFCs (R-134a, R-407C)
Air conditioning in buses

HFCs (R-134a)

Hydrocarbons*, carbon dioxide*

Foam Extruded polystyrene foam Carbon dioxide (LCD) or with hydrocarbon blends
HFCs (HFC-134a, HFC-152a, HFO-1234ze*)
Hydrocarbons
Water
Links to case studies
Rigid polyurethane foam (various applications)

Carbon dioxide (water)
HFCs (HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc), HFO-1234ze*
Hydrocarbons, natural oil*

• Methyl formate

Links to case studies
Polyethylene foam

Hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide*, natural oil*

HFO-1234ze*

• Methyl formate

Links to case studies
HCFC-141b
Foam Rigid polyurethane foam
(various applications)

Carbon dioxide
HFCs (HFC-134a, HFC-152a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc), HFO-1234ze*
Hydrocarbons (Pentane)
Supercritical carbon dioxide

• Methyl formate

Links to case studies
Integral skin foam Carbon dioxide
HFCs (HFC-134a)
• Non-halogenated alternatives, methyl formate
Phenolic foam • 2-chloropropane
HFCs (HFC-365mfc, HFC-227ea)
Hydrocarbons
Links to case studies
Solvent applications Cleaning HFCs (HFC-4310mee, HFC-245fa)
HFEs
Not-in-kind substitutes (no-clean, aqueous, hydrocarbon, oxygenated solvents)
PFCs
PFEs
Links to case studies
Aerosols Non-medical aerosol products HFCs (HFC-134a)
HFEs, HFO-1234ze*
Hydrocarbons
Not-in-kind substitutes (mechanical pumps, sticks, roll-ons, brushes, etc.)
Water
HCFC-142b
Foam Extruded polystyrene board foam Carbon dioxide (LCD) or with hydrocarbon blends
HFCs (HFC-134a, HFC-152a), HFO-1234ze*
Hydrocarbons
Water
Links to case studies
Polyethylene foam

Hydrocarbons

•HFO-1234ze*

• Methyl formate

 

Links to case studies
HCFC-225 ca/cb
Speciality solvents Precision cleaning and as a carrier solvent HFEs
Links to case studies
Cleaning implantable or surgical medical devices • No information
HCFC-123
Low-pressure refrigerant in large air conditioning chillers Centrifugal chillers HFCs (HFC-134a)
Refrigerants for deep mines Ammonia (R-717)
HFCs (HFC-134a)
Water (R-718)
Fire extinguishant Portable fire extinguishers • AFFF
Carbon dioxide
• Dry chemical (Potassium bicarbonate, Sodium bicarbonate)
HFCs (HFC-236fa, HFC-227ea)
• Multipurpose dry chemical
Water fog
Water stream
Specialty solvents Electronics cleaning

Not-in-kind alternatives (no-clean processes; aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning)
• Oxygenated solvents (e.g. alcohols, glycols, ethyl lactate)

•HFEs*

Links to case studies
HCFC-124
Fire extinguishant Total flooding applications • Aerosol powders (Powdered Aerosol A, Powdered Aerosol B)
Carbon dioxide
Gaseous agents containing particulate solids (HFC227-BC)
Gelled mixture of HFC plus dry chemical additive)
HFCs (HFC-125, HFC-23, HFC-236fa, HFC-227ea, HFC Blend A)
Inert gases (IG-01, IG-100, IG-541, IG-55)
Iodofluorocarbon (FIC-13I1, FIC-217I1)
Perfluoroketone (FK-5-1-12)
Links to case studies
Local application fire protection Carbon dioxide
• Dry chemical
• Foam
HFCs (HFC-236fa, HFC-227ea)
• Surfactant blend A
Water
Heat pumps   • No information

Links to case studies
Special air conditioning equipment   • No information
Links to case studies
Sterilant mixtures   • No information
Links to case studies
       
General Information  
Links to case studies



Sources:

UNEP, May 2008 Technology and Economic Assessment Panel Progress Report, Volume 1 (2008, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)

UNEP, Halon Technical Options Committee Technical Note #1 New Technology Halon Alternatives - Revision 3 (December 2007, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)

UNEP, 2006 Report of the Rigid and Flexible Foams Technical Options Committee 2006 Assessment (March 2007, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)

UNEP, 2006 Report of the Chemicals Technical Options Committee 2006 Assessment (March 2007, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)

UNEP, 2006 Report of the Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee 2006 Assessment (2007, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)

UNEP, 2006 Report of the Rigid and Flexible Foams Technical Options Committee 2006 Assessment (March 2007, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)

UNEP, Report of the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel May 2003 HCFC Task Force Report (2003, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)

Related
List of HCFCs controlled under the Montreal Protocol
Applications where HCFCs are used
Refrigerant blends containing HCFCs
Frequently Asked Questions
Trade names of chemical products containing HCFCs
Contacts
UNEP Compliance Assistance Programme
UNDP Montreal Protocol Unit External link
UNIDO Montreal Protocol Unit External link
World Bank Montreal Protocol Operations External link

 

© UNEP DTIE 2007 | updated 9-feb-10